Volume 26, Issue 4 (12-2016)                   J Holist Nurs Midwifery 2016, 26(4): 1-9 | Back to browse issues page

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Aghajani M J. Effect of Hardiness Training on Self-Esteem and Adjustment of Addicted Male. J Holist Nurs Midwifery. 2016; 26 (4) :1-9
URL: http://hnmj.gums.ac.ir/article-1-787-en.html
1- , psy.aghajani@yahoo.com
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Introduction: Drug abuse is among the main problems at present time which seriously puts people's physical and mental health at risk. And since mental stress plays an important role in the trend to addiction and disability, it is necessary to recognize people's methods of resistance to stress.

Objective: This study was performed to determine the effect of hardiness training on self-esteem and adjustment among addicted male.

Method: This research is a pre-post test and control group. Study sample included 200 addicted men referring to Payam addiction center in Rudsar in 2012 who agreed to participate in the study. Upon getting permission from the technical in-charge of the clinic and presenting the required description to the referred persons about the study process and its objectives, the samples responded to a three-part questionnaire consisting of personal data (age, marital status and education), Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Scale and Bell Adjustment Inventory.

Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Scale includes 58 items and the subjects chose between "Yes and No" options. The grading method of this test was as 0 and 1; positive response was 1 and negative was zero. The minimum grade a subject may take was zero and maximum was 50. In case the subject took more than 4 from eight items of the Polygraph; it means that the test validity was low and the subject attempted to show himself better than what he is.So, the subjects get the grade more than mean score, have high self-esteem and the ones get lower have less self-esteem.   

Bell Adjustment Inventory (BAI) included 160 questions and 5 subscales of 32 questions that the subject responded the questions with Yes, No or I don't know; the five subscales included: adjustment at home, health, emotional, job and social. In order to obtain the grades of each adjustment field, based on the determined key 9 – 21: good adjustment; 22 – 47: average adjustment; and finally 48 – 60: weak adjustment.

In order to do the study, the justifying meeting was held for 200 qualified subjects about the study and they were requested to respond the inventory if agree. After responding to the inventory, 57 subjects got lower scores on self-esteem and adjustment. Then it was known that 30 subjects had been selected randomly; they divided into two groups of 15 subjects; control group and test group. Everybody was told they may leave the study anytime they want, and it was emphasized that during the whole training sessions, all names and study results would be kept secret. Moreover, it was reminded that upon completion of the training programs for test group, and in order to take the advantages of training programs, the control group will be under hardiness training, as well. After these processes, hardiness Training sessions were performed as lecture and group discussion for ten 90-minute sessions for test group while control group received none.

At the end after performing the sessions, during the last training sessions, the two control and test groups will complete the research tools again. In order to describe the demographic specifications of the participants and data of pre-test and post-test, the descriptive statistics were applied. ANCOVA was used to distinguish the significant effect of the independent variable on dependant variable.

Results: The subjects were with mean age of 26.1 and majority of them (% 46.6) had secondary education. Analysis of data showed that the mean score of self-esteem in the experimental group in pretest was 21.87.42± 3.502 and 21.93±2.154 in the control group. The mean score of the Adjustment was 59.73±8.59 in the experiment and 60.67±7.62 in the control group. In the posttest, the mean score of self-esteem equaled 33.07±3.43 and the control group 23.13±2.26. Moreover, in the post test the mean of adjustment of the experimental group and the control group were 37.27±6.17 and 57±7.20, respectively. The using of covariance analysis showed that hardiness training increased self-esteem and adjustment significantly (P=0.001)

Conclusion: The results of this study show that participating in hardiness training meeting can affect promotion of self-esteem and adjustment in addicted men. Therefore resistance to mental stress can be increased by promoting hardiness and doing so promote health.

AWT IMAGEKey words: Self Concept, Social Adjustment, Substance-Related Disorders

Article Type : Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2016/12/6 | Accepted: 2016/12/6 | Published: 2016/12/6

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