Volume 19, Number 1 (4-2009)                   J Holist Nurs Midwifery 2009, 19(1): 37-42 | Back to browse issues page


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rezasoltani P, rafat F. Leptospirosis outcomes in pregnancy. J Holist Nurs Midwifery. 2009; 19 (1) :37-42
URL: http://hnmj.gums.ac.ir/article-1-286-en.html

, rezasoltani_p@hotmail.com
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Leptospirosis outcomes in pregnancy

By: Reza Soltani. P; Rafat. F

Abstract:

Introduction: Leptospirosis is a serious disease of humans, caused by different strains of the bacteria Leptospira. The disease in humans can include pregnant mothers with poor outcomes such as intrauterine fetal death, abortion, and delivery of a newborn with signs of congenital leptospirosis. Moreover, due to overlapping signs and symptoms, leptospirosis is often difficult to distinguish from HELLP syndrome and Acute Fatty Liver of pregnancy. Therefore, it's necessary to assess the effect of leptospirosis on pregnancy outcome in human.

Objective: The goal of this study was to review the articles relating to leptospirosis and pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: Data were gathered via a number of electronic databases and books.

Results: Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In tropical regions, the infection is endemic, while in industrialized countries, the disease is rare. Leptospirosis is difficult to distinguish from many other diseases in humans. Human infection may be subclinical or present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Common symptoms in humans are similar to influenza and include headache, joint and muscular ache and pain, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, sweating, high fever. Researches have reported few cases in pregnant women and the effect on prenatal outcome. Intrauterine fetal death, abortion, delivery of a newborn with signs of congenital leptospirosis, and developmental abnormality has all been reported. It has been proven that the bacteria can pass to a baby via breast milk. It has also been detected in placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood. Where the mother has suffered a severe illness the cytotoxic impact of leptospires combined with hemorrhagia and pyrexia can be a primary cause of fetal mortality, usually via placental ischaemia.

Conclusion: While leptospirosis is rare in pregnancy, we should consider this infection in pregnant women developing acute liver dysfunction or acute infection without fever, besides HELLP syndrome and Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy.

Key words: leptospirosis, pregnancy, outcomes

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2014/08/23 | Accepted: 2014/08/23 | Published: 2014/08/23

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